What are the routes by which cardiac catheterisation can be done?

 The most common way is by the femoral route (through the groin). Both the femoral artery and the femoral vein can be entered by percutaneous puncture. It easy to stop the bleeding once the procedure is over and the sheaths are taken out. The vessels are compressed over the femoral head. This route is also faster and often resorted to in case of emergency like primary angioplasty in a person with cardiogenic shock. Other routes are the jugular vein in the neck, basilic vein near the elbow, brachial artery near the elbow and radial artery near the wrist. Occasionally the axillary artery and subclavian vein can be used if other sites are not accessible.